2020-02-19

Energy content and CO2 emissions

 

 

I did my best to find out the basic data in this article. If you have the knowledge to improve the basic data, please send me a message.

 

 

A lot of nonsense is spread about co2 emissions when using coal, oil and gas. Most people have no idea what they are talking about. Below you will find tables with calculations.

 

How reliable are the basic data?

The calculations are easy to check. The basic data are a bit more difficult. Judging from internet sites, apparently nobody knows the data about coal. For example, Wikipedia gives the calorific value for different types of coal in MJ/kg and then represents CO2 emissions: Coal 3.66 kg CO2 per kg. Per kg what? Brown coal or anthracite. That makes a very big difference. From petrol one gives the emission per litre. But a litre is not a fixed quantity. (A litre at zero degrees is different from a litre at 30 degrees.)

If we compare with other sites, we often arrive at very different numbers. How can you make proper comparisons if the basic data are very soft? Why doesn't the EU have a site with hard data on CO2 emissions per kWh?

Carbon has a calorific value of 33936 kJ/kg. Carbon has an atomic mass of 12, oxygen an atomic mass of 16. Two atoms of oxygen are added per atom of carbon during combustion. 1 Kg of carbon should then produce 3.7 kg of CO2. Coal and lignite contain some hydrocarbons in addition to carbon. Hydrocarbons emit less CO2 per kWh than carbon. In the table below I use carbon instead of coal and lignite. Combustion of coal and lignite are slightly (marginally) more favourable than pure carbon.

 

Fuel

amount

energy in kWh

CO2 in kg

CO2 per kWh

Natural gas

1 m3

8,8

1,8

0.20 kg

Benzine

1 litre

9,7

2,4

0.25 kg

Carbon

1 kg

9,43

3,7

0.39 kg

 

Actual CO2 emissions from fuels

Depending on the purpose, incorrect data is used on purpose. For example, making coal look bad and promoting gas. I think this behavior is criminal. GreenPeace and various political parties are guilty of this. With natural gas they use for example Slochteren gas. (Natural gas from a town in the Netherlands, where it was very easy to win gas with little extra costs.) And with coal they sometimes add 20% extraction costs, which is absurd. When we reduce gas consumption, the gas that is most difficult to extract will disappear in the first place. That would be fracking gas. A lot of fracking gas costs 65% of the production of energy. You should compare this with coal and gas. In the Netherlands, production damage is also omitted. The people of Groningen are not happy about that. (There are a lot of earthquakes there, related to the winning of gas. Complete towns are wrecked by it. And then GreenPeace and many politicians want to shut down brand-new coal power-plants. Are they in The Hague and at GreenPeace crazy ????? Or are they being sent by FSB agents ???? (The FSB is a new version of the KGB. They infiltrate environmental groups to set them up against coal. so that Europe becomes dependent on gas. Which we should buy from Russia. See also Russia is waging war against us )

20% extraction costs to be added to coal ????? Because the search for new coal reserves costs so much ??? There is no search for new coal reserves. Coal consumption is being reduced.

About the table below.

A percentage is given for fracking gas and oil from tar sands. That percentage represents the extraction costs. 'Fracking gas 30%' stands for fracking gas where the extraction 'only' costs 30% of the energy gained. That hardly ever happens. Usually the extraction costs are far above 50%.

'Ratio Slochteren gas' indicates how the CO2 emissions compare to the CO2 emissions of natural gas that is easy to win like 'Slochteren gas'. For simplicity, I have set the extraction costs of Slochteren at 0%. That is not entirely correct. Extracting Slochteren gas also costs energy, but not that much. (And no account has been taken of environmental damage caused by earthquakes, for example)

.

 

Fuel

CO2 per kWh

Ratio Slochteren gas

Natural gas

0.20 kg

1

Gasoline

0.25 kg

1,25

Carbon

0.39 kg

1.95

Fracking gas 30%

0.29 kg

1,43

Fracking gas 65%

0.57 kg

2,86

Gasoline from tar sand oil 65%

0.71 kg

3,57

Cost in euros per kWh

 

This is difficult to calculate because correct basic data is hard to find. I am assuming the current (4 June 2017) world market price for oil and coal.

According to clo.nl:

Cale costs 2 euro per GJ. That's 0,0072 euro / kWh.

Brent costs 50 euros per 159 litres or 0.31 euros per litre. One litre has slightly less then 10 kWh energy per litre. That's 0.031 euros per kWh.

 

Costs of transport in CO2 and euro's

A gasoline car rarely achieves an efficiency of 20%. I'm assuming that fictitious efficiency. Reality is much worse.

An electric car achieves an efficiency of approximately 90%. A coal-fired power station easily achieves 50%. The efficiency of an electric car on electricity from a coal plant is then 90% times 50% is 45%.

According to the table above, gasoline costs 0.25 kg CO2 per kWh and coal 0.39 kg CO2 per kWh. (This does not include extraction costs. If oil consumption drops, no oil is extracted from tar sands. Oil from tar sands costs 0.71 kg CO2 per kWh.)

A gasoline car with an efficiency of 20% then costs 1.25 kg CO2 per kWh. A car on electricity of a coal plant with an efficiency of 45% then costs 0.87 kg CO2 per kWh. A gasoline car pollutes (at best) 1.44 times more than an electric car on electricity from a coal plant. In addition, a car running on electricity from a coal plant emits no polluting exhaust fumes in the inner cities.

Greenpeace want us to close the coal-fired power plants. Also brand new coal-fired power plants. They say they stand up for a better environment. But in fact they work for Russia, which wants to sell oil and gas to us. See Russia is waging war against us

Note: GreenPeace wants the Netherlands to close brand new coal plants. They say, that is better for the environment. They say, that coal plants are dirty. But the exhaust fumes of these coal plants are washed with water with a calcium sollution. The resulting gypsum is used in construction.

 

Fuel

CO2 per kWh

yield

CO2 per kWh

Benzine

0.25 kg

20%

1.25 kg

Coal flow

0.39

45%

0.87 kg

Above (under "Costs in euros per kWh") we came to the following data.

Coal costs 0,0072 euro / kWh.

Brent costs 0.031 euro per kWh. The costs of turning Brent oil into petrol are considerable. I have no insight into that. I leave it out of consideration here, because the cost of crude oil are already so much higher than coal. I therefore set the cost of gasoline at 0.031 euros per kWh. Presumably the costs are higher than 0.05 euros per kWh.

A gasoline car with an efficiency of 20% then costs 0.25 euros per kWh. A coal-fired car with an efficiency of 45% then costs 0.016 euros per kWh. The fuel costs of a gasoline-driven car are then more than 15 times higher than those of a car on electricity from a coal plant.

GreenPeace wants us to close the coal-fired power plants. They say they stand up for a better environment. But in fact, they work for Russia, which wants to sell us oil and gas. See Russia is waging war against us

 

Where does our money go??

If we spend our money on oil, it ends up in Saudi Arabia and Russia. Russia uses our money to help Assad kill the people of Syria. Saudi Arabia supports radical Islam and behaves criminal regarding the treatment of employees from abroad.

If we spend our money on coal or lignite it ends up in better countries.

If we buy coal in Poland, our money flows to Poland. Then Poland can invest more money in solar energy. If we buy coal in Colombia, the miners there can feed their children and send them to school.

 

 

There are people who act against coal and try to strengthen their arguments, by saying: "Miners in Colombia are being exploited".

These are probably people who are wondering WHICH school they will send their children to. The miners want to work in the mines so that they can send their children to school. Even if it is bad for their health. Yes, the miners are being exploited. If we buy a lot of coal, we can exert pressure to reduce exploitation.

The human rights violations by Saudi Arabia and Russia are many times worse. For example. Residents of Saudi Arabia often have maids from the Philippines. As soon as they arrive their passports are taken away. After that they are systematically mistreated, humiliated and raped. When a victim stabs a knife in the belly of her rapist, she is sentenced to death. We are allies of Saudi Arabia because we are addicted to oil. I suggest that the environmental freaks draw attention to this. And that they don't pretend (with boundless arrogance) to speak for Colombian miners.

The people who use this rhetoric make me nauseous. The miners are exploited by the mine operators. Then they are abused by environmental freaks, who want to take away their income. With as result that they can not send their kids to school. Disgusting.

 

 

What do we do with our money ??

GreenPeace demands that we close brand new coal-fired power plants and that we buy more oil and gas from Russia, so that Putin gets even more money to sabotage our democracy and murder the people of Syria. See Russia is waging war against us .

We can also run our cars on solar power, coal power and hydrogen. If there is too much solar energy in summer, we can turn it into hydrogen. In the winter we can use this for the cars in combination with power from a battery. The cost in money of a car running on electricity from a coal plant is more than 15 times lower than a car running on gasoline. Moreover, coal comes from better countries.

If we save a lot of money by running our cars on electricity from a coal plant, then we can use that money for a better environment. We can put that money into solar panels and hydrogen technology.

GreenPeace is fiercely opposed to that. All coal-fired power plants must close at once. That's why I'm assuming GreenPeace works for Russia. I assume that GreenPeace and many other environmental organizations have been infiltrated by the FSB and that FSB agents run the environmental movement. See Russia is waging war against us .

 

Boycot Russia

The best answer to Russian aggression against Europe is this:

Let's make Europe independent of Russian gas and oil. Many Eastern European countries are very poor and have no money for Russian gas and oil. They are much better off with small biomass cogeneration plants. (Power plants that produce electricity and heat.) Small power plants that can be operated by a family of farmers. In summer there is a lot of electricity from solar panels. In winter we need more electricity and we need heat. When farmers use that heat to warm their homes, we get a better energy efficiency. As long as there is agricultural waste, they burn it. When that runs out, they burn coal or lignite. It's much better for the environment and much better for Europe. when Eastern European countries generate electricity and heat with European coal.

I'm pleading for more energy generation from coal!!!!!

That reduces CO2 emissions and is much better for the political environment!

Russia is our enemy and threatens our freedom and our democracy. We must return to Cold War. We need to squeeze Russia economically and technologically, until they can behave normally. In 500 years, they may be ready for a normal relationship with the West. At the moment, the Russian leaders behave like ape-men, driven by animal instincts to increase their territory.

 

With Light and Love, Andreas Firewolf

 

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